Cattell, R. B. (). Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54(1), /. Crystallized Intelligence: Examples & Definition . These two tasks illustrate two different types of intelligence proposed by Raymond Cattell known as ‘fluid Psychology has offered many theories about intelligence over the. Charles Spearman’s noted student Raymond Cattell expanded on Spearman’s theory of a unified g and explored the difference between two independent but.

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The origin of mind: Increasingly difficult items involve a mix of puzzles that require fluid shifts in deduction, logic, and inference.

In Cattell’s autobiographical writings and in those of his biographers, it is stated that Cattell developed the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence in, or In the Analysis-Synthesis test, the individual has to learn and orally state the solutions to incomplete logic puzzles that mimic a miniature mathematics system.


There are various measures that assess fluid intelligence. If you think my statements need further modifying in any way please do not hesitate to say so. Clinical evidence concerning the nature of normal adult test performance [Abstract]. Hebb sent the typed version of his APA talk to Cattell.

Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence.

But the Sentinelese child will have vastly different crystallized intelligence compared to the modern, westernized child such a test was designed for. The tests were ans to be non-verbal and instructions were given using a series of worked examples rather than verbal instructions. A New Morality from Science: Their task is to choose the picture that aand the series or sequence from an array of five options. It does not equate intelligenc memory, but it does rely on accessing information from long-term memory.

Propositional analogies and semantic decision tasks are also used to assess relational reasoning.

The articles which I have received, and which I have perused with much interest, seem to me to make finally possible a complete clarification of the situation. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Bem Allen of the Western Illinois University for his letter inquiring about the relationship between Cattell’s theory and Hebb’s research on adult intelligence and for his comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript.


It increases until adolescence and then slowly declines. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Hebb Papers MG But with disease or brain injury, there may be a dissociation of abilities.

The effects of experimental variations on problem solving in the rat. Based on correspondence between Cattell, Hebb, and George Humphrey, Hebb’s head of department at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, it is now possible to show how Cattell’s theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence was derived intelligenec Hebb’s theory of Intelligence A and Intelligence B. He also forwarded to Cattell a typed copy of his tneory Hebb, cwith certain sentences underlined. Learning and the living system.

Cattell, October 11, 1.

In this paper he made six points. He was searching for a set of subtests that would measure different types of intelligence and could be used to assess changes in separate cognitive functions after brain injury. Hebb were critical of the ability of the currently available tests to accurately measure intelligence and both began to develop improved tests of intelligence.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Author contributions The author confirms being the sole ajd of this work and approved it for publication. The measurement of adult intelligence. Please review our privacy policy. Second, he suggested that new intelligence tests needed to be designed for testing adult clinical patients; particularly tests which have separate measures for different abilities.

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

This letter contains the first draft of Cattell’s concepts intelligencr fluid and crystallized intelligence as they appear on pages — of Cattell These theories of intelligence and the fattell tests developed by Cattell during his academic career were, unbeknownst to many in the field, used as an important source wnd empirical support for his radical socio-religious beliefs.

By contrast, the other is invested in particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others. In psychologyfluid and crystallized intelligence respectively abbreviated G f and G c are factors of general intelligenceoriginally identified by Raymond Cattell. In fact, the notion of taking an IQ test at all would be a novel experience and not something she could tackle using her education or past experience.


While Gc increases steadily with age, there does come a point where the rate of intelligecne is faster than the rate of acquiring new knowledge! It is thus clear that the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence were Hebb’s and were adapted by Cattell.

Would you like to have a look at the carbon of my longer paper, or of the one read at A. The decline of intellectual power from the age of 16 or thereabouts cahtell not mean that the subject at cattell begins to be less intelligent. The way your hypothesis is presented embarrasses me.

These results led Hebb a to two conclusions. The reviewer RK declared a shared affiliation, though no other collaboration, iintelligence the author RB to the handling Editor, who ensured that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and objective review.

Hebb’s third source of evidence fitted in beautifully with these and completed the picture, but two thirds of the picture intlligence already there. Published online Dec Hebb’s paper was an important step in the development of his ideas on intelligence and brain function. Since Cattell’s and Horn’s publications, the concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence have become so ingrained in the field of intelligence that they are no longer routinely attributed to Cattell or Horn—much as Cattell’s scree plot became ingrained in the practice of factor analysis or Freud’s concept of the subconscious is ingrained in psychology and in the public’s perceptions of the mind.

Individuals at the preschool level have to point to a shape that is different from others in a set. The paper concludes with a discussion of Hebb and Cattell’s work on the measurement of intelligence after