The Dittus-Boelter equation gives the heat transfer coefficient h for heat transfer from the fluid flowing through a pipe to the pipe walls. It was determined by. DITTUS-BOELTER EQUATION. (see Supercritical heat transfer; Tubes, single phase heat transfer in). Number of views: Article added: 8 February Thus the Dittus-Boelter equation (eq) should be used,. Thus h can be calculated for the known values of k, and d, which comes out to be. Energy balance is.

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For turbulent flow in rough tubes, the heat transfer coefficient increases with wall roughness. If the flow is laminar, is natural convection important? For fully developed internal laminar flow, the Nusselt numbers tend towards a constant value for long pipes.

Dittus-Boelter equation – Nusselt number

By eauation this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This should not be a problem, since this phenomena is typically neglected except for highly viscous flows or gases at high mach numbers.

The fluid properties used to calculate the Grashof number should be evaluated at the film temperaturethe arithmetic mean between the bulk and wall temperatures. As the Reynolds number increases, the viscous sublayer becommes thinner and smaller.

Such errors may be reduced through the use of more recent, but generally more complex, correlations such as the Gnielinski correlation. A temperature profile exists due to the energy exchange resulting from this temperature difference. It is easy to solve but is less accurate when there is a large temperature dihtus across the fluid. This movement raises h values in slow moving fluids near surfaces, but is rarely significant in turbulent flow.


Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 6th ed. Flow through a pipe, around an object, over a plane, etc. The convective heat transfer coefficient, his given directly by the definition of Nusselt number:.

The entrance effect correction may be omitted for “long” conduits. It makes use of the wquation of volume expansion: Example The Dittus-Boelter equation is a good approximation where temperature differences between bulk fluid and heat transfer surface are minimal, avoiding equation complexity and iterative solving.

Empirical correlations for a wide variety of geometries are available that express the Nusselt number in the aforementioned forms.

If you continue to use this site we will assume that you agree with it. The Dittus-Boelter equation for turbulent flow is an explicit function for calculating the Nusselt number. Then for the top surface of a hot object in a colder environment or bottom surface of a cold object in a hotter environment [3].

The ratio is then raised to the 0. The Sieder-Tate correlation is normally solved by an iterative process, as the viscosity factor will change as the Nusselt number changes.

Dittus-Boelter equation – Nusselt number – calculator – fx​Solver

Many of the laminar flow correlations are set up in terms of the Graetz Number. A similar non-dimensional parameter is Biot numberwith the difference that the thermal boeltet is of the solid body and not the fluid.

Gnielinski’s correlation for turbulent flow in tubes: The Gnielinski Correlation is valid for: Heating usually makes the fluid near the wall less viscous, so the flow profile becomes more “plug-like. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th Edition. Nuclear and Reactor Physics: Consequently, you must be very careful to use the form that matches the correlation you are using.


An understanding of convection boundary layers is necessary to understanding convective heat transfer between a surface and a fluid flowing past it. Retrieved 23 September The conductive component is measured under the same conditions as the heat convection but with a hypothetically stagnant or motionless fluid. Cladding prevents radioactive fission products from escaping the fuel matrix into the reactor coolant and contaminating it.

The Dittus-Boelter equation is:. Each flow geometry requires different correlations be used to obtain heat transfer coefficients. The Dittus-Boelter correlation may be used for small to moderate temperature differences, T wall — T avgwith all properties evaluated at an averaged temperature T avg. International Journal of Thermal Sciences.

Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Calculate the PrandtlReynolds and Nusselt number for this flow regime internal forced turbulent flow inside the rectangular fuel lattice fuel channelthen calculate the heat transfer boelfer and finally the cladding surface temperatureT Zr,1. This increases to 3. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 4th ed.

The Grashof Number provides dittsu measure of the significance of natural convection. This fully satisfies the turbulent conditions. Thus, it is necessary to check and compensate for free convection only in laminar flow problems.

Named after Wilhelm Nusseltit is a dimensionless number.