Al-Ghazâlî’s critique of twenty positions of falsafa in his Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahâfut al-falâsifa) is a significant landmark in the. Tahafut-Al-Falasifah – Incoherence of the Philosophers [Imam Al-Ghazali] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Al-Ghazali’s relationship with . Al-Ghazali’s Tahafut Al-Falasifah [Incoherence of the Philosophers] [Al-Ghazali & Sabih Ahmad Kamali (Trans.)] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying.

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Al-Ghazali stated that one must be well versed in the ideas of the philosophers before setting out to refute their ideas.

The Incoherence of the Incoherence – Wikipedia

A purely occasionalist model finds it difficult to explain how God can make humans responsible for their own actions if they do not cause them. Only its introduction and its brief explicit create a connection to the refutation in the Incoherence. We can imagine a world where fire does not cause cotton to combust. The book favors faith over philosophy al-ghzaali matters specifically concerning metaphysics or knowledge of the divine.

The Incoherence of the Incoherence was not well received by later Islamic scholars. Averroes quotes passages by al-Ghazali and then responds to them.

Catalog Record: al-Ghazali’s Tahafut al-falasifah; | Hathi Trust Digital Library

There is no single event in this world that is not determined by God’s will. He denies Avicenna’s premise that possibility needs a substrate. This can no longer be upheld.

Aims of the philosophers Maqasid al Falasifa. Kommissionsverlag des Bibliographischen Bureaus. The proximate efficient cause may be just the last element in a long chain of efficient causes that extends via the heavenly realm.

While it is conceivable and therefore possible that God would break his habit or intervene in the assigned function of the secondary causes, He informs us in His revelation that He will not do so. These judgments, however, are ultimately fallacious and cannot be the basis of jurisprudence fiqh.


The impulsive possibility that the intellect rushes to apprehend without [any] consideration, thinking, or inquiry is what becomes evident to the intelligent person when he sees a building. All these are teachings that are very close to those of Avicenna Frank24— The interpretation of passages in revelation, however, whose outward meaning is not disproved by a valid demonstration, is not allowed Griffel—35;— Two of those works have come down to us.

Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, He states that Avicenna and his followers have erred in seventeen points each one of which tahafuh addresses in detail in a chapter, for a total of 17 chapters by committing heresy.


God’s will is the undetermined determinator of everything in this world. These parts were almost certainly written or added after the publication of the Incoherence Janssens45; Griffel9— The movement of falsafa from Greek: Prophets and the revealed religions they bring articulate the same insights that philosophers express in their teachings, yet the prophets use the method of symbolization to make this wisdom more approachable for the ordinary people.

They are not created through God’s deliberation and choice but are a necessary effect of God’s essence. Based on partly mis-translated texts by Aristotle HansbergerAvicenna developed a psychology that assumes the existence of several distinct faculties of the soul.

The 17th discussion is not triggered by any opposition to causality. Once God chose to create this world among alternatives, He also chose not to change the rules that govern it.

Miracles are programmed into God’s plan for His creation, so to speak, from the very beginning and do not represent a direct intervention or a suspension of God’s lawful actions Frank59; idem, The process of particularization makes one of several alternatives actual.

Al-Ghazali also stated that he did not have any problem with other branches of philosophy such as physicslogicastronomy or mathematics. These doctrines are limited to three: A Philosophical Anthology from Maraghah.


Given the fact that neither observation nor any other means of knowing including revelation gives a decisive proof for the existence or non-existence of a connection between a cause and its effect, we must suspend our judgment on this matter. The kind of connection between human actions and reward or punishment in the afterlife can only be learned from revelation HouraniMarmura — Mirror Sites View this site from another server: Academic Tools How to cite this entry.

If a body continues to have a certain attribute from one moment to the next, then God creates two identical accidents inhering in that body in each of the two subsequent moments. In Europe, on the other hand, ibn Rushd’s philosophical writings were generally well received by Christian and Jewish scholars and gave rise to the philosophical school of Averroism.

In the modern model, the notion of necessity refers to what obtains in all alternatives, the notion of possibility refers to what obtains in at least in one alternative, and that which is impossible does not obtain in any conceivable state of affairs Knuuttila God creates the universe as a huge apparatus and employs it in order to pursue a certain goal qasd. Avicenna combines secondary causality with the view that causal processes proceed with necessity and in accord with the natures of things, and not by way of deliberation and choice on the side of the efficient cause.

Tracing back all efficient causes in the universe will lead to a first efficient cause, which is itself uncaused.