Jean-Paul Akayesu (born ) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican . External links[edit]. ICTR case documents for Jean Paul Akayesu. Warning: This case deals with topics that are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse. If you have. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million Tutsi in Rwanda in Akayesu was mayor.2 A trial chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for.

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He was found criminally responsible for genocide and crimes against humanity.

At the time the events occurred, Rwanda was divided administratively into prefectures, which in turn were divided into communes. Thus, on the basis of objective criteria, both Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II will apply once it has been established there exists an internal armed conflict which fulfills their respective pre-determined criteria.

Common Article 3 and other rules in other parts of the country i. The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as “a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive”, and sexual assault akayrsu acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such. The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

AKAYESU, Jean Paul (ICTR-96-4)

Imposing measures intended to prevent akaywsu within the group paragraph d: Must the State of which the accused is a national be a party to the Convention on Genocide? The RPF troops were disciplined and possessed a structured leadership which was answerable to authority. In the opinion of the Appeals Chamber, the Trial Chamber erred in requiring that a special relationship should be a separate condition for triggering criminal responsibility for a violation of Article 4 of the Statute.

The Tribunal opined that rape and sexual violence constitute acts of genocide when they are committed with the specific intent of destroying, in whole or in part, a particular group, as such. Individual Criminal Responsibility For the purposes of an international criminal Tribunal which is trying individuals, qkayesu is not sufficient merely to affirm that Common Article 3 and parts of Article 4 of Additional Protocol II — which comprise the subject-matter jurisdiction of Article 4 of the Statute — form part of international customary law.


This page was last edited on 1 December casse, at After considering all the arguments advanced by the Accused, the Aoayesu Chamber held that the Accused had failed to demonstrate that the Trial Chamber had committed any of the errors of fact and law alleged by him.

Without these actions, the rape and other inhumane acts committed would not have happened. Conclusion The applicability of Common Article 3 and Additional Protocol II has been dealt with above and findings made thereon in the context of the temporal setting of events alleged in the Indictment.

Jean-Paul Akayesu Case | Tackling Violence against Women

Under ground 2, the Accused argues that he had been denied the right to a competent attorney para. Here is the relevant section of the September United Nations report: Akayesu appealed against his convictions and the sentence imposed on him.

Colonialism Dies Hard appearing to deny the extent of the genocide were widely publicized. Some proceedings are however still ongoing. The Chamber underscored that in this case there had been an abuse of the right of an indigent accused to legal aid at the expense of the international community.

He held this position until Octavien Ngenzi Jean Paul AKAYESU facilitated the commission of the sexual violence, beatings and murders by allowing the sexual violence and beatings and murders to occur on or near the bureau communal premises.

Appeals Chamber, paras Who are the beneficiaries of the IHL of non-international armed conflicts? This case deals with topics akayeeu are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse.

The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment does not catalogue specific acts in its definition of torture, focusing rather on akayeeu conceptual frame work of state sanctioned violence. On 2 SeptemberTrial Chamber I of the Tribunal found him guilty of nine out of fifteen Counts charging him with genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the Geneva Conventions in the first ever trial before the Tribunal.

Rather, the Chamber finds it necessary and reasonable to establish the applicability of both Common Article akayesi and Additional Protocol II individually. He pleaded not guilty on all counts.

Akayesu was charged with five counts under Article 4 of the Statute and was acquitted on each of the said counts. This destruction resulting from sexual violence was targeted, with the intent of causing seriously bodily or mental harm to Tutsi women and, in some cases, with the intent to kill them after and the Tutsi group as a whole.


Jean-Paul Akayesu Case

His actions in Taba amounted to direct participation in the crime of genocide. Under Additional Cawe II, the parties to the conflict will usually either be the government confronting dissident armed forces, or the government fighting insurgent organized armed groups.

Jean Paul Akayesu was found not guilty of the six remaining counts, including the count of complicity in genocide and the counts relating to ajayesu of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II thereto. The judgment also contributed to making the legal definition of rape more precise. Special intent of a crime is the specific intention, required as a constitutive element of the crime, which demands that the perpetrator clearly seeks to produce the act charged.

ICD – Akayesu – Asser Institute

The above reference criteria were enunciated as a means of distinguishing genuine armed conflicts from mere acts of banditry or unorganized and short-lived insurrections. Akayesu alleged a total absence of the rule of law in view of a series of errors invalidating the finding of guilty paras.

It is required as a constituent element of certain offences and demands that the perpetrator have the clear intent to cause the offence charged. As a result, the Appeals Chamber must turn to the article which serves as a basis for Article 4, to wit, Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions [ Under ground 9, the Accused argued that Witness DAAX had sent a letter to the judges of Trial Chamber I following his testimony and that this constituted an abuse of process para.

Francisco Luis Gordillo Martinez On 17 Junethe Prosecutor modified the indictment to include 3 new counts, all regarding allegations of rape and sexual violence: Like torture, rape is a violation of personal dignity, and rape in fact constitutes torture when inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.